Diabetes Mellitus is a disease where there is an abnormality in the body’s ability to maintain blood glucose levels.
In patients diagnosed with Diabetes type I there is a complete absence of insulin since the pancreas fails to produce it in response to carbohydrate intake.
This is the primary reason why patients have an uncontrolled high blood sugar level, or hyperglycemia. Biosynthetically produced insulin is thus given to type I diabetics to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetics on the other hand, can produce insulin but often have an increased resistance to the effects of insulin, or an inability of cells to respond to insulin whenever blood glucose levels increase.
Since the pancreas is triggered to produce more insulin whenever there is food intake there may be an unusually high insulin levels which does not effectively cause glucose absorption into the cells.
Thus, hyperglycemia results even in the presence of insulin. Oral hypoglycemic agents are usually given to type II diabetics to maintain blood glucose levels although some may need insulin.
Internal mechanisms in the body regulate blood sugar levels to maintain balance. However, many factors may affect these mechanisms, including diseases like diabetes, where the main defect lies in the inability to regulate glucose levels in the blood.
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Dr. Angelica Samarista-Giron